موضوع: Complete Urine Analysisتحليل بول كامل الثلاثاء نوفمبر 20, 2012 5:11 pm
Complete Urine Analysis:
There is causes leads patient to make urine analysis different from male to female.
In male: Pain during elimination of urine or changes in urine color or requested by doctor of urinary tracts or in case of pain during intercross (because of pus in prostatic secretion).
In female: Pain during elimination of urine or changes in urine color or requested by doctor of urinary tracts or in case of abdominal pain because of ovaries (left or right) or in vaginitis.
Volume: Normally 1.5 liter/day. If more than 2 liters/day named as polyuria (in diabetes or in chronic renal diseases) If less than 1 liter/day named as oligouria (in case of excessive sweating , vomiting and diarrhea).
Color: Normal color: is yellow or amber yellow.
Abnormal colors: 1.Colorless (polyuria). 2.Orange (due to antibiotic intake or eating certain foods). 3.Brownish or greenish (Bilirubin >2mg/dl in blood). 4.Reddish (RBC’s due to stone or blood mesentration). 5.Milky (usually in male due to sperms in urine). 6.Cloudy with offensive odor (due to pus , crystals or epithelial cells).
Odor: Normally with aromatic odor. Abnormally: Offensive odor due to pus increase. Acetone odor due to ketones increase (ketonuria).
As you see the urine specimen clear, semi turbid or turbid.
Specific gravity: patients must collect samples during 24 hrs.
Normally : 1003 – 1024 In the report write Q.N.S when the quantity is not sufficient .
PH: Acidic or alkaline (may caused by eating excess of fruits or vegetables) . Protein or albumin: Normally : Nil
Abnormally : trace , + , ++ , +++ . according to the read of protein strip .
Diseased case : due to increase in pus or RBC’s. Undiseased case :due to eating excess of proteins or during pregnancy (usually in the third trimester)
Glucose: Trace , +(160-195) , ++( >200) , +++ (250-300). according to the read of glucose strip.
Acetone: **Mainly : acetone increases by increasing glucose( >200) .
Note:The patient when intake the drug of glucose laboratory examination result is glucose is normal but acetone is hyper.
Ascorbic acid(Vitamin C): Due to excess in Vitamin C intake and have no side effects.
Mucous: You can see it during examination of urine slide after centrifugation . Appears as mucous threads by your naked eye. Mainly happen in males at maturation age or indication to inflammation in prostate after 60 year of age.
Bilirubin (urobilinogen) test:
1. Prepare 1 ml of urine in a test tube then put 2 -3 drops Iodine on the wall of test tube gently. 2. A violet ring appeared on the surface of urine (fig 1). 3. Shake the tube , then solution becomes violet or brownish (fig 2).
Albumin (protein) test: 1. Prepare 1 ml of urine in a test tube then heat gently till ebullition . 2.If the solution becomes turbid that indicates the presence of albumin or amorphous urate. So you must put acetic acid for insurance if the turbidity precipitated so it is Am.urate, if still turbid so it is albumin in urine.
3-Microscopic examination :
See Galleries Please
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protein in urine
This picture shows the protein (albumin) in different urine samples